Expansive from the western Himalayas in the east, to the Caucasus Mountains and the high steppes of southwestern Russia in the west, is the basin of the Caspian and Azov Seas, a huge geographical basin with no outflow for the rivers which flow into it, from the Himalaya mountains in the southeast, the Caucasus mountains to the west, and the Urals in the north, with the Volga flowing into the Caspian Sea from the north; Moscow far upstream. This huge desert region, looking mostly like central Nevada, was pastureland and forest during the Ice Age (as it was in central Nevada), where now, the few rivers which flow out of the mountains disappear and dry-up in the sands of the dry basin.
To the southeast of the Caspian Sea is Turkmenistan, which shares a border with Iran to the south, separated by the Kopet Dag mountain range, the eastern extension of the Alborz Mountains (along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea), which more or less hooks up with the western edge of the Himalayas, in eastern Uzbekistan, which shares a border with Afghanistan to the south, where are the Hindu Kush mountains, the western end of the Himalayas. Into the Kara Kum desert of southern Turkmenistan flow a few streams, from the Kopet Dag range, on its border with northern Iran, but which quickly dry-up flowing out into the sands of the Kara Kum.
And out in those sands have been discovered the building ruins of a big town, Anau, most anciently known as Gathar (Gather in Genesis 10, a grandson of Shem), with clay brick buildings, sumerian figurines, and bronze age tools of war and building, of the ancient mining culture which took ore from the nearby Kopet Dag mountains, the ruins now under sand, built back during the Ice Age, when the area was rife with lakes and streams, pasturelands and forests, when rather than less than 10 inches of rain per year fell, it was more like 30 inches per year, making the terraine look more like that of easthern Kansas than southern Arizona, a completely different place.
The ancient name for this place is Ashkhabad, which means habitation of Ashkenaz, who was a son of Gomer, a son of Japheth, a son of Noah. And on the other side of the mountains, in Iran, are the ancient ice age ruins of Meshed, also known as Mashhabad, the habitation of Mash, son of Aram, son of Shem, son of Noah.
This also was a mining town, both of which traded with Sumer, Elam, Canaan, and even with the Minoans, probably through Canaanite intermediaries, during the Ice Age, when the climate of the Middle East was not desert, but of grasslands, lakes, streams, and stands of forest, not at all what it looks like today, and so, we can understand why so many ancient ruins are now within vast expanses of desert sand; they flourished during the Ice Age, and then it all began to end circa 1500 BC., when also, the sea level rose a few hundred feet to submerge hundreds of seacoast port towns (see category Submerged Ancient Ruins).
North of Afghanistan, in Uzbekistan, which stretches westward to the Caspian Sea, are also ruins of ice age towns, now out in the desert sands, but then, it was an environment of grasslands and stands of forest; the ruins in the deserts of western Asia reveal advanced clay-brick building techniques, unique in type, but clearly bronze age, with the evidence of such tool making there, the copper and bronze having been mined from the nearby Hindu Kush (Cush, son of Ham) range. This land, Uzbekistan, was the land of Job, in the kingdom of Uz, who was another son of Aram, a son of Shem, a son of Noah.
Read the Book of Job in the Bible to see what Uzbekistan, there in the Caspian basin, was like during the Ice Age. And far to the south, also during the Ice Age, the old kingdom Egyptians, instructed by Ham and Kush, were surveying dimensions for the Great Pyramid of Giza by the wobble rate of the earth’s axis, to derive the length for the royal cubit, the same cubit (20.632 inches) with which King Solomon’s Temple was surveyed in Israel over a thousand years later.