In human genetics, Haplotype 35, also called ht35 or the Armenian Modal Haplotype, is a Y chromosome haplotype of Y-STR microsatellite variations, associated with the Haplogroup R1b. It is characterized by DYS393=12 (as opposed to the Atlantic Modal Haplotype, another R1b haplotype, which is characterized by DYS393=13).
The members of this haplotype are found in high numbers in Anatolia and Armenia, with smaller numbers throughout Central Asia, the Middle East, the Balkans, the Caucus Mountains, and in Jewish populations. They are also present in Britain in areas that were found to have a high concentration of Haplogroup J, suggesting they arrived together, perhaps through Roman soldiers.
Ht35 is a Y-chromosome haplotype commonly found (21.8%) in male subjects originating from Armenia; that is the reason why it is named “The Armenian haplotype”. This study aims to determine ht35 frequencies in subjects from the various European countries.
A total of 3,524 unrelated subjects originating from 45 countries, regions or towns were tested for the p49/TaqI polymorphism by molecular hybńdízation experiments, An isofrequency map of haplotype ht35 in Europe was realized. The 106 ht35 bearing subjects were analyzed for six Y-STR microsatellite markers.
The distribution 0f ht35 in Europe shows that the highest observed haplotype percentage (23.1%) concerns Calabria, a region located in the South of continental Italy, The isofrequency map shows olher European regions of high ht35 percentages: the Napoli region (14.8%) in Italy, Sicily (7.1%), Albania (14.7%), Greece (13.2%) and Romania (10.3%), The 106 ht35 bearing Subj ects tested for microsatellite markers belong to eleven microsatellite haplotypes, the first one (haplotype l) being the most frequent (76.4%); all the tested Subjects have an allelic value of 12 for the DYS393 microsatel» lite marker.
These results support the hypothesis of an initial focus of ht35 in Armenia and surrounding countries, and a later propagation of ht35 bearing subjects in south European countries during the Holocene.
The goal of the R1b1b2 (P312- U106-) DNA Project is to investigate the history and distribution of the most upstream (or basal) clades of haplogroup R1b1b2. The project is open to anyone tested to be M269+ U106- P312-.
This project is sometimes called the ht35 project, a legacy of its early history. The original goal of this project, when it was formed in 2007, was to facilitate the discovery of SNP markers that would help differentiate the old “ht15” type of R1b1b2 found primarily in western Europe from the “ht35” type of R1b1b2 found primarily in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia.
The list of SNPs discovered in members of this project since then (L23, L49, L51, L277, L405, L11, P310, P311, and others) is long. These discoveries have kept us busy, not least in a need to continually update the names we use.
The data in our project demonstrate that haplogroup R1b1b2 is relatively young, with its most recent common ancestor having lived less than 7,000 years ago somewhere in southwestern Asia. Approximately 5,000 years ago R1b1b2 began to spread rapidly across Europe, where it has since gained primacy in many places, and to a lesser extent across SW Asia.
Before the advent of Y-SNP testing, and well before the discovery of detailed knowledge about the structure of haplogroup R1b, TaqI 49a,f haplotypes were used by early population geneticists. These haplotypes were determined using a now-defunct technology called RFLP.
Two particular TaqI 49a,f haplotypes have been found to be associated with what we now know to be haplogroup R1b1b2. The two haplotypes are ht15 and ht35. ht15 is most commonly found in western European R1b1b2, and most likely represents a mesolithic or neolithic population expansion in western Europe.
ht35, the parent haplotype of ht15, is most commonly found in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia. Elevated levels of ht35 have also been observed among Ashkenzi and Sephardic Jewish populations.
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